It is by no means clear _____the president can do to end the strike.
句子的主干就是it is by no means，显然在这个句中it充当的是形式主语，后面的_____the president can do就是一个主语从句，这是从句中缺少主语，我们就填的是what.
A lot of language learning, _____ has been discovered, is happening in the first year of life, so parents should talk much to their children during the period.
句子的主干就是language learning is happening in the first year of life. _____ has been discovered用来修饰整个主句的内容，又放在主句的中间，所以这是一个非限制性定语从句修饰整个主句的内容。我们都知道在定语从句中内代替整个句子内容的有两个引导词：which和as，只有as在引导非限制性定语从句时能放在句中，所以这个地方填的就是as。
________he is, he will be thinking of you.
显然这句话的主干就是：he will be thinking of you. _____ he is在整个句子当中充当的就是状语，所以这部分就是状语从句。在这个状语从句中缺乏的就是表语，想到众多的引导词以后，我们最终选择了wherever。因为wherever的意思是“无论在哪”，刚好符合题意，所以是最合适的一个。
Is this desk____ he bought for me yesterday?
Is this the desk _____ he bought for me yesterday?
碰到一般疑问句了，怎么办呢?我们第一步就是要把它变成陈述句。所以第一句话的主干就是this desk is…,第二句话的主干就是this is the desk。很显然，第一句话后面的从句he bought for me就是一个表语从句，而第二句话后面的从句he bought for me就是一个定语从句。在第一句话中，表语从句中缺乏宾语，所以填的就是what。在第二句话中，定语从句中缺的也是宾语，我们填的是which/that或不填。所以做题时一定要细致，向这两个题的区别就在于一个定冠词the.
1.This will be particularly true since energy pinch will make it difficult to continue agriculture in the high-energy American fashion that makes it possible to combine few farmers with high yields.
结构分析：句子的主干是This will be particularly true…。since引导原因状语从句。此从句中又套嵌一个由关系代词that引导的定语从句，修饰the high-energy American fashion。在定语从句中，that做主语，makes做谓语，it做形式宾语，不定式短语to combine few farmers with high yields则是真正的宾语(不定式短语内部to combine是主干，few farmers是宾语，with high yields是状语)，possible做宾语补足语。this指代前句中提到的这种困境。energy pinch译为“能源的匮乏”;n…fashion译为“用…方法、方式”。
2. Now since the assessment of intelligence is a comparative matter，we must be sure that the scale with which we are comparing our subjects provides a“valid”or“fair”comparison.
结构分析：句子的主干是we must be sure…。since引导原因状语从句the assessment of intelligence is a comparative matter。主句中又有that引导的宾语从句that the scale with which we are comparing our subjects provides a“valid”or“fair”comparison。此宾语从句中又套嵌一个由介词with+which引导的定语从句with which we are comparing our subjects修饰先行词the scale。scale在此处意为“尺度、衡量标准”。
3. In general，the tests work most effectively when the qualities to be measured can be most precisely defined and least effectively when what is to be measured or predicted can be not well defined.
结构分析：句子的框架是the tests work most effectively when…and least effectively when…。and连接两个并列分句，每个并列分句中皆有一个when引导的时间状语从句分别说明work most effectively和and(work)least effectively。第二个时间状语从句中还有一个主语从句what…predicted。the tests是主句的主语，work为动词做谓语。qualities在此处是可数名词，不译为“质量”，而译为“特征”。defined不能直译为“被定义为”，而应译为主动语态“界定”。
4. For example，they do not compensate for gross social inequality，and thus do not tell how able an underprivileged youngster might have been had he grown up under more favorable circumstances.
结构分析：句子的框架是they do not compensate…，and thus do not tell how…。and连接两个并列分句，第二个并列分句中由how引导的宾语从句是一个带有虚拟条件句的主从复合句，其中had he grown up…(=If he had grown up…)是省略了连词if的非真实条件句。主句主语的they，在此代指上文提到的tests; able在句中作might have been的表语。underprivileged在此不能译为“没有特权的”，而译为“没有地位的”或“物质条件差的”。
5. It leads the discussion to extremes at the outset：it invites you to think that animals should be treated either with the consideration humans extend to other humans，or with no consideration at all.
结构分析：句子的框架是It leads the discussion to extremes at the outset: it invites you to think that…。冒号后的复合句是对冒号前部分作进一步说明。复合句中that引导宾语从句，从句中有either…or…引导的两个并列的介词结构作状语，修饰动词be treated，其中第一个with介词结构中还有一个省略了关系代词that或which的定语从句humans extend to other humans，修饰the consideration。it代指上文的观点，即如果对人权没有达成一致看法，而谈论动物的权利是徒劳的。介词短语at the outset译为“从一开始”。动词invites应转译为“使”、“让”或“促使”。动宾结构extend consideration to意为“给予关怀或关心”，consideration不应译为“考虑”。
6. But even more important，it was the farthest that scientists had been able to look into the past，for what they were seeing were the patterns and structures that existed 15 billion years ago.
结构分析：句子的框架是it was the farthest that…。但It was…that…在本句中不是强调句型。it是指上句中所提到的150亿年前形成的巨大云团(a strip of enormous cosmic clouds some 15 billion light-years from earth);that引导的应是一个定语从句，修饰先行词the farthest。for引导的是表示原因的分句，分句中还有that引导的定语从句，修饰the patterns and structure。
7. Thus it happened that when the new factories that were springing up required labor，tens of thousands of homeless and hungry agricultural workers，with their wives and children，were forced into the cities in search of work，and any work，under any condition，that would keep them alive.
结构分析：句子的框架是it happened that…。it做形式主语，that引导的从句做真正的主语。主语从句中，又有一个由when引导的时间状语从句，主句为tens of thousands of homeless and hungry agricultural workers…were forced…，时间状语从句中从句主语the new factories又带有一个定语从句that were springing up; that would keep them alive做work的定语从句。spring up意为“发生，出现，建立”。
8. As a result of two or three centuries of scientific investigation we have come to believe that nature is understandable in the sense that when we ask her questions by way of appropriate observations and experiments，she will answer truly and reward us with discoveries that endure.
结构分析：句子的框架是…we have come to believe that…。that引导的从句做believe的宾语从句;此从句中有一个that从句作the sense的同位语从句;同位语从句中又套嵌一个由when引导的时间状语从句;此时间状语从句又套嵌一个定语从句that endure，修饰其先行词discoveries。by way of意为“经由，通过…方法”;reward sb. with意为“以…报答，酬劳”;endure此处应译为“持久，持续”，不要译为“忍受，容忍”。
9. These new observational capabilities would result in simply a mass of details were it not for the fact that theoretical understanding has reached the stage at which it is becoming possible to indicate the kind of measurements required for reliable weather forecasting.
结构分析：句子的框架是These new observational capabilities would result in simply a mass of details…。后面紧跟省略了if引导的虚拟条件句were it not for the fact that…，即if it were not for the fact that…;that从句作the fact的同位语从句。此从句中又套嵌一个定语从句，修饰其先行词the stage; required for reliable weather forecasting为过去分词短语修饰the kind of measurements。simply译为“只不过，仅仅”，不应译为“简单地”。
10. The story of the discovery of what is now generally called the principle of Archimedes，namely that a solid body when immersed in a liquid loses a portion of its weight of the liquid it displaces，has many different versions，of which the following is one.
结构分析:句子的框架是The story…has many different versions…。what is now generally called the principle of Archimedes为名词性从句做介词of的宾语。namely that a solid body…作the principle of Archimedes的同位语;when immersed in a liquid是省略了主语的过去分词短语，句子补充完整为when the solid body is immersed in a liquid，修饰其主句a solid body loses a portion of its weight of the liquid…;it displaces是省略了关系代词that的定语从句修饰the liquid，it代指前面提到的the solid body;同时，of which the following is one又构成先行词versions的定语从句。displace意为“排(水)”;version不译为“版本”，此处指“根据个人观点的(对事件等的)说法，看法”;句尾的one代指a version。